The International Organizing Committee of the Second Latin American Economic History Congress has preapproved the following session proposals. For their final inclusion in the Congress program, sessions will have to comply with the requirements established in the call for session proposals (available at, about the minimum number of participants, the sessions characteristics and the responsibilities of the chairs.

The electronic system to submit papers will open soon at

1. Spurious Business Activities and Corruption in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula

CHAIRS: Carlos Tello Macías (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico), Guillermo Luis Vitelli (Universidad de Buenos Aires y Universidad Nacional de Lanus, Argentina).

There have been different forms of corruption in the history of Latin American nations and the Iberian peninsula.. However, with few exceptions, corruption has always been present. An aspect of corruption, if not the basic and most relevant, is the fact that it has originated spurious (and legitimate) business activities, born from both politics and government structures. The session would include both aspects of corruption: the integration of business activities, corruption and politics, as well as politics and the developing of corrupt plots in and from government structures. Both aspects can be analyzed through time and/or by comparing different situations and nations. Possible topics include, among others: a) History of corruption in the history of Latin American nations, from the colonial times to the present. b) corruption plots intertwining two or more countries from and beyond the region. c) Spurious business activities and corruption derived from economic policy actions. d) Business and corruption as seen from the logic of different schools of economic thought. e) Drug trafficking and the broadening of corruption in government spheres, f) Corruption related to contracts with multinational firms and their links to public officials g) Corruption in electoral processes and anticipation of ochlocratic behaviour.

2. The Import Substitution Industrialization and Economic Openness in Latin America. Sectoral Studies and Netwoks

CHAIRS: Guillermo Guajardo Soto (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico), Marcelo Norberto Rougier Viollaz, (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina), Jose Lannes (Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil).

Industrial history as a field of study has a long history in Latin America. The investigations have covered a range of important issues such as the analysis of public policy instruments to stimulate sectoral development, ways of measuring the quantitative and qualitative progress in the industry, the study of transposition, adaptation and development of technology, the history of industrial enterprises, and analysis of the social actors directly involved with industrial dynamics. Yet it is obvious lack of interest in industrial problems from the mid-seventies and until almost the turn of the century. This resulted in part from the structural crisis of paradigms and question its explanatory value, and partly of the same process of deindustrialization that was manifested in most Latin American countries, in addition to installing a strong pessimistic view respect to that process. In the last decade a number of historical research has successfully reintegrate the discussion of the characteristics that the manufacturing sector came mainly during the period known as import-substitution industrialization (ISI). However, history has not yet been able to uncover why the ISI as the engine was on dynamic growth despite the less innovation and develop mainly within protected markets, a situation that contrasts with the subsequent phase, characterized by openness, flexibility and greater access to innovations, which, however, has not generated a significant industrial development. This session addresses the processes of import-substitution industrialization in Latin America and the structural changes in the industry after the economic opening, from a fresh perspective. Specifically, the objective is, on the one hand, progress in the analysis of specific sectors and activities in networks developed for the purpose of study the advances and limitations of that process. On the other, verifying the different trajectories of the industry due to various macroeconomic conditions after opening. In particular, the analysis of this issue is framed in some cross-axes refer to aspects of the market, work processes and the incorporation of technology, income redistribution and the behavior of aggregate consumption, the industrial policies and the new contours of the geography of industrial concentration. The ultimate goal of the Bureau is to promote contact between researchers from various universities and schools in Latin America that are devoted to the subject, sharing the results of their work and stimulate debate and critical discussion on the issues central to economic development in the region.

3. Social Networks and their Relationship with Economic Activity

CHAIRS: Omar Jiménez Rosano (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Mexico), Carmen Sarasúa García (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain).

We want to explore the networks methodology and its applications in economic history in this Second Latin American Congress of Economic History: firms, government, labour and financial markets, started as a network family or network of friends. In that sense we want to analyze the market as an outcome of all those networks.

4. War and Fiscal Systems in Colonial America (XVIth-XIXth centuries)

CHAIRS: Angelo Alves Carrara (Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil), Ernest Snchez Santiró (Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico).
The fiscal systems of the empires in America during colonial times were under the influence of a lot of factors, such as adaptation to social and economic conditions of the vast American territory, the establishment of power groups in the very colonial space, or the vicissitudes of the international politics of each metropolis, one of the most notorious embodiment of which was war. This symposium aims at gathering a group of historians with an extended time and space spectrum in order to study and analyze the impact of the financial and safety needs of the metropolis and colonies on the fiscal systems of the American territories. In other words, to refine the assumption: "war as one of the motors of fiscal change".

5. Means and Ways of Transportation in the Formation of Regional and National Economic Systems in the 19th and 20th centuries

CHAIRS: Alcides Goularti Filho (Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Brazil), Paulo Roberto Queiroz Cimó (Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Brazil), Elena Salerno (Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Argentina).

The processes of formation and extension of the circuits internal market, which passed with different intensities and scales (local, regional and national) as the season or region, in many cases led to the establishment of integrated national or regional markets, which were an important foundation for movements of agricultural expansion, craft, industrial and commercial based on endogenous accumulation of capital, after the formation of independent nation states in Latin America. In this context is to consider the development of transport and transport routes and infrastructure essential for the formation of the space market (which form the national markets, regional, local) and based on physical processes of commodification of the production and its territorial extension of the circuits of capital accumulation of local or external. Research and comparison of different regional and national cases is justified by the opportunity to explore the different circumstances of countries and regions, as to time, geography and types of transport (land, river, coastal, rail and road), trying however identified elements common in the relationship between transport systems and economic and political dynamics that are established not only nationally but also in towns and regions, possibly including a growing economic link between the latter. General Objective: Gather studies on regional economic formations, systems of national economy and the processes of development of means of transport and transport routes (including in its relations with national patterns of accumulation), in order to carry out comparative discussions on the formation and evolution of regional economies and on the role of systems and business of transport in such economies. Specific Objectives: a) discuss the role of transport routes and the means of transport in the training and integration of regional and national markets; b) discuss the relationship between regional and national patterns of accumulation and development of transport systems towards the regional markets, national and foreign; c) discuss the regional economic specialization and diversification products with reference to the general movement of national economies; d) discuss the history and procedures of public enterprises and private transport as constituent parts of the formation of regional systems and national economy.

6. The Origins and Trends of Latin American Inequality

CHAIRS: Luis Bértola Flores (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Linda Twrdek (Universität Tübingen, Germany).

The question of how inequality is generated and how it develops over time has been a major concern for social scientists for a long time now. Although often talked about, little is known so far about the historical roots of Latin American inequality. Some have argued that the open economy forces of trade and mass migration played a pivotal role, whilst others found a persisting link with colonial regimes, factor endowments, and land distribution to existing and even growing inequality. The impact of globalization forces has been addressed several times, from which we learned that inequality rose in resource-rich, labor-scarce countries, and fell in resource-poor, labor-abundant, agrarian countries. This session aims at analysing the experience of Latin American countries in terms of inequality measures starting in the 18th century. We therefore intend to not just look at GDP or wage differences, but to take living standards, human capital, and other social variables into consideration. Of most value, a comparison with the rest of the world is aspired to better understand the differences to OECD countries.

7. Markets and Traders in the Trade Circuits of the Spanish American Space, 1780-1860

CHAIRS: Viviana Edith Conti (Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Argentina), Erick Langer Heidtmann (Georgetown University, United States).

The symposium is planned to provide for rethinking and contributing to knowledge about the economic actors who moved in the trade circuits of the Spanish American space during the late colonial to early republican periods. The proposal incorporates an analysis of the diversity of alliances between the elites and other groups of the various regions and the effects of the reorganization created by the struggles for independence. We are interested in contributing to the discussion of the practices and strategies of these economic agents and the experiences of the different regions of Spanish America during the crucial period of transition from the ancient regime to the republican era

8. Recent Research in Colombian Economic History, 19th and 20th centuries

CHAIRS: Luis Bértola Flores (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Edwin López Rivera (Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Colombia).

In recent years, Colombian economic history has advanced significantly, from research supported in the quantitative analysis, neo-institutionalism, the new comparative economic history and new political economy. These methodological guidelines distinguish these research papers from those published prior to the nineties of last century. This has opened the space to study a greater number of issues such as education, life quality, prices and wages, confiscation of processes in the nineteenth century, slavery, among others, with a rigorous quantitative support. The objective of this symposium is to discuss these issues and approaches, based on papers done in the past two years, making an assessment of the contributions of these researches to the Colombian and Latin American economic history, covering mainly the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

9. Transportation and Public Services in Latin America. State, Enterprises and Entrepreneurs in the 19th and 20th centuries

CHAIRS: Teresita María Celina Gómez Milo (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina), Andrés Martín Regalsky (Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero y Universidad Nacional de Lujn, Argentina), Guillermo Guajardo Soto (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico).

The social and economic organisation of Latin American countries was deeply influenced by the development of transportation and urban public services. Their expansion during the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, associated to the national consolidation and the economic model based on the production of primaries commodities for export, was a major concern for national and provincial governments. Private investment (foreigners or domestic) had played an important role in their growth and were usually fulfilled with capitals provided by the government; he regulation of these actors and their capitals was a matter of public policy with inconsistent efficacy. In the course of the 20th century the government had increased its intervention in the construction and exploitation of these services until the nationalization was performed in the mid century. After that new problems aroused particularly those associated with the maintenance and management of the companies. The declination and even the paralysis of the service were mainly associated with other aspects of the underdeveloped economy. The papers in this symposium will consider the issues previously referred from a comparative perspective, taking into account different national and regional experiences, in which the private sphere is interrelated with the public one. The aim of this meeting is to continue with the discussions and interchanges started in December 2007 in the city of Montevideo in the frame of the First Latin American Congress of Economic History.

10. The Service Sector in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula in the 20th century

CHAIRS: Javier Vidal Olivares (Universidad de Alicante, Spain), Mario Cerutti (Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico).

The service sector became a source of modern economic growth after or at the same time of the industrialization and urbanization processes. However, historical research on the numerous activities in the tertiary sector of Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula does not seem to have developed in a notorious form. Thus the objective of this session will be to be acquainted with, analyze and spread papers on areas that lack a stable forum for Latin American, Spanish and Portuguese researchers to debate activities such as consulting, commerce, credit and financial intermediation, agriculture-related services, transportation, insurance services, tourism, travel agencies, hotels, restaurants, leisure time providers, culture and entertainment. The chairs of the session believe that the Latin American and Mexican Economic History Congresses, due in February 2010, will be an adequate venue to give an incentive to research in this topic in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula.

11. Foreign Investment, Foreign Trade and Economic Growth

CHAIRS: Sandra Kuntz Ficker (El Colegio de México, Mexico), Albert Carreras (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain).

The symposium will include a number of papers concerning with foreign trade (statistical reconstruction, geographic distribution, performance, etc.) and with its economic contribution within the 19th and 20th centuries. It will embrace topics related to imports, exports, trade policy, as well as any other that may be considered relevant in order to analyze the multiple connections between external trade and the performance of the national economies.

12. Tax Systems in Latin America: Between Progressivity and Regression, Between Direct and Indirect Taxes (18th-20th centuries)

CHAIRS: Magdalena Bertino Sgarbi (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Daniel Santilli (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina), Luis Juregui (Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico).

Studies on the way the State generates its resources are each time more numerous in world economic historiography. Latin America in not an exception to this trend. These resources are obtained by applying a number of taxes and contributions over the whole population. In the decision on how these taxes are, a number of policies are deliberately (or undeliberately) applied. These latter can harm ones and benefit others, Then, the effects that these measures generate can be desired or undesired. Moreover, it is a truth that the State has acted and acts on purpose through public finances favoring ones against others. The sense of those benefits and withdrawals is one of the subjects that are addressed by the historical analysis of fiscal policies. From that point of view, studies on how and on what the State spends have grown in number, starting from the idea that the resource allocation will indicate the political course of action. Moreover, as a healthy up-to-date it is intended to be done now from multidisciplinary approaches, coming not only from History itself, but from other social and human sciences.

13. The Future of Agricultural Financing, Cooperatives and Development Banks in Bicentennial America

CHAIRS: Jesús Méndez Reyes (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico), Leandro Eduardo Moglia (Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Argentina), Cndido Romn Cervantes (Universidad de La Laguna, Spain).

The economic history of Latin America has shown that some of the regional economies were relegated to join the world market before and during the independence process. Various activities that have enabled the growth of homogeneous nation-states during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, began to lag behind, including agriculture, finance and marketing. Notwithstanding this fact, the productions of the countries of the continent remained through the direct action of local governments, trade protectionism, the organized work of ranchers, farmers, ranchers, tenants and associated private and collective in nature. As an example, highlighting the cooperative movement, farmers' unions, providing a fair and overall action of the so-called social economy. In this context the members of the Symposium we have been reflecting on the processes, actors, policies and historical experiences from particular regions and areas.

14. Long Term Compared Perspectives on Latin American and Caribbean Economy

CHAIRS: César Yñez Gallardo (Universidad de Barcelona, Spain), Albert Carreras (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain), Sandra Kuntz Ficker (El Colegio de México, Mexico), André Hofman (CEPAL, Chile).

The quantitative comparative history is a pendent question in the economic history of Latin America and Caribbean. It has been progress since the OXLAD data base, but there is not critic about it and another series available for the region. The explanation to the relative backward of Latin America and the Caribbean to require quantitative precision higher than the actual that we have. We think that is necessary improve (or increase) the effort to complete the number of countries, especially in the case of the more littlies and less developed. Moreover, we need to cover longer periods to understand the different stages of progress and stagnation. Hereby, this session proposal to discuss the trajectories of Latin American and Caribbean economies , increasing the vision in works with new series on the long run and/or utilizes it to offer a comparative vision between the countries of the region and this region with the rest of the world.

15. Spanish Migration, Business Spirit and Economic Growth in Latin America from the Independence to Our Days

CHAIRS: María Eugenia Romero Ibarra (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico), Javier Moreno Lzaro (Universidad de Valladolid , Spain).

This session tries, to the thread of the celebration of the bicentenary of the Independence of the countries of Latin America to examine the continuity of the links with the former metropolis that provided the birth of companies of great size in the bosom of the community of Spanish emigrants.
We propose as elements of analysis: a) The intensity and determinants of the migratory flows, b) The role of the bows of peasantry, of the solidarity, of the cooperative institutions and of the diplomatic support in the formation and growth of these companies, c) The relations between the Spanish oligarchies in Latin American countries and the public power; or Spaniards as group of pressure, d) The role of these companies in the diffusion, institutional and managerial of the technical change of the Latin-American signatures(companies), e) The diffusion of innovations originated in America across the establishment of these firms in Spain, f) the analysis of the most singular paths.
The session will include the personal testimony of big Mexican businessmen of Spanish origin. Likewise, we aspire to rely on the institutional help of the Foundation Carolina, the Embassy of Spain and the Spanish Chamber of Trade and Industry. In fact, we propose to realize this session in the assembly hall of the Spanish Casino in the street Isabel the Catholic one of the Mexico City.

16. Exploring the Latin American Enterprise

CHAIRS: Gabriela Recio (Centro Cultural Manuel Gómez Morin, Mexico), Andrea Lluch (Harvard University, United States).

In the last decades there has been an increasing amount of research that has analyzed the development of businesses in Latin America. This new scholarly production has shed light on the ways that companies and entrepreneurs from the region have historically evolved through different periods and how their economic, cultural, social and political context has shaped them through the years. Although the new field of Latin American Business History has grown, its output and impact has been quite diverse in the different countries of the region. The purpose of this session is to contribute to a greater dialogue among scholars in this field and to prompt comparative analysis. This session will seek to study businesses and Latin-American entrepreneurs in three main periods of the international economy – two characterized by its globalization (1880-1914c. and 1980-2008c.) and another of closed borders and highly protectionist and nationalist policies (1914-1970c). These historic periods would enable to analyze and compare the impact that globalization had in Latin American businesses. It will also allow us to understand how the region´s businessmen and its companies adapted to nationalistic policies that were a result of the Great Depression.

17. Banks in the Caribbean: From Colonial Times to the Present

CHAIRS: Pablo Martín Aceña (Universidad de Alcal de Henares, Spain), Inés Roldn Montaud (Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ciencia e Investigación, Spain).

This symposium on the formation and development of the banks in the Caribbean from the colonial era to the present aims to create a space for discussion on the financial history of the region. It aims to bring together researchers with interest in development of banking in various countries of the Caribbean, with the purpose of comparing the various developments in the Antilles, according to their different economic and political trajectory. Within the overall context of the Caribbean, is purpose is to identify those specific traits, local and national, in the process of formation of the banking systems of individual countries in the region. This symposium covers research on both the foreign commercial banks, such as the Royal Bank of Canada or the National City Bank, who were two influential institutions in the economic development of the region in the twentieth century, as well as local institutions. In some cases, commercial banks were created for the purpose of financing the export of agrarian products. Others were created by the colonial governments with the privilege of issue (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Martinique). Of particular interest is the study of the various models adopted by the European metropolis in their colonial dependencies and how credit and money supply was organized, In short, the symposium aims to conduct a comparative approach of the banking systems that developed in the Caribbean region.

18. Families, Business and Firms in Latin America, 1850-1930, 1850-1930

CHAIRS: Maria Alice Ribeiro Rosa (Universidade Estadual Paulista Campus Araraquara, Brazil), Lúcia Lamounier (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil).

The symposium’s main purpose is to discuss current research focusing interrelations among “families, business and enterprises” in Latin America, covering the period 1850-1930. The so-called region Oeste Paulista in São Paulo, Brazil, illustrates some of the themes and questions involved in the symposium´s general subject. The period 1850-1930 is characterized by three important institutional benchmarks: the Slave Traffic Abolition; the Land Law, which formalized the land market, defining the acquisition as the only means to have access to land property; the Commercial Code, which defined the rules to the organization of private enterprises. The Great Depression, which led the coffee economy to its final crisis, characterizes the end of the period. Since 1850, the Oeste Paulista (nucleated by the cities of Campinas, Itu, Bragança Paulista, Mococa, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto) became the main coffee crop region in Brazil. This leadership led to deep transformations in the social organization of the economic life. The Paulista West coffee crop was produced in extensive properties. The planters owned big properties, both of land and slaves. This concentrated pattern of property defined a new accumulation pattern, by means of investment diversification in activities that paralleled the coffee crop itself. These activities were related to coffee commercialization, including the “casas comissrias”, and to coffee transport, including railway companies. The big coffee crop owners also invested in banking activities. Subsidiary small and medium family businesses, many of them established by immigrants, were part of the Paulista West economic tissue. The immigrants benefited from the opportunities created by the growing urban economy and by the population growth. Their firms supplied the internal market with all kinds of staples, such as apparels, food, textile products, and also dominated the small industries that produced equipment to process coffee, sugar cane, cotton, grains. Besides, the immigrants soon dominated the commercialization of food, clothing etc. Changing processes in land property structure, in labour market features, in business institutional environment as well as changes in the external circumstances which affected the export economies during the period shaped local elite´s strategies, diversifying investments over several enterprises or products to guard against loss. The symposium can provide an opportunity to examine the distinct strategies and experiences taking place in Latin America, contrasts and similarities in wealth composition and growth facing the distinct circumstances for investments, as well as set an agenda of research. The session proposed to the symposium will be based on the discussion of papers dealing with the general subject involving the role of family groups and the growth of business in Latin America, supported by ongoing research, based on sources such as the post mortem inventories, censuses, firm archives, mortgage registers, legislation, newspapers, almanac, etc.

19. Labor Markets and Worlds in the 20th century

CHAIRS: María Magdalena Camou Soliño (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Rodolfo Porrini Beracochea (Universidad de la República, Uruguay).

The aim of the session is to join up researchers from Latin America engaged in analysing labor relations from a historical perspective. The empirical approach does not exclude the interest of including theoretical and methodological issues that will enrich the discussion. We are especially interested on approaches with a long-term perspective. We seek to assemble papers that include comparisons or allow them to work on themes or issues detailed below. Under those themes we highlight: the processes of constitution, evolution and transformation of urban, rural and / or regional labor markets, taking into account the economic, political and cultural factors affecting them. Other topics of interest are the evolution of wages and living conditions of workers, evolution of the work organization, technological innovation and productivity, labor market institutions and power or cooperation relations between state, unions and employers. At the same time researches that allow comparisons linking different aspects of the constitution of labor market with living and working conditions, forms of cultural expression, organization and power relationships among actors will be accepted in a priority order.

20. State, Centralism and Economic Development of the Peripheral Regions: Latin America, 19th and 20th centuries

CHAIRS: Carlos Donoso Rojas (Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile), Alberto Díaz Araya (Universidad de Tarapac, Chile).

In their extensive list of structural problems, the political, demographic and economic centralism of part of the countries Latin-American occupies a seat till now studied only marginally. The analysis of this phenomenon turns out to be complex, considering that the variables that determine the concentration in the big urban cores have answered to incentives as diverse as the periods in which these develop. Nevertheless, be which is the reason, the productive actors of peripheral regions of the continent, historically, have generated a speech concerning the lack of opportunities from the scanty generation of fiscal policies that promote the development, especially in periods of crisis, considering his economic potentials. The debate turns out to be attractive so, beyond the zone and predominant activity, submits in them a constant concerning the need to consolidate a factor of Fiscal aid district attorney that promoter of development does not contemplate, except punctual exceptions, the initiative deprived as element. In other cases, the question allows to infer the scanty penetration of State, naivety in the approach of public determinant policies, or the incipient institutional one in nations. The idea of this symposium is to assemble papers that allow debating how the interests deprived with the state ones have related, in regions removed from the political and financial centers of the respective nations. They were the responsible States of the progress, or were not any more that you unite to the development? In what measure did the relative autonomy of some peripheral regions delay the fiscal intervention as for the application of policies of economic development? How did the interests deprived with the state ones gain?

21. Prices, Wages, Inequality and the Level of Life in Latin America, 1700-1850

CHAIRS: Daniel Santilli (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina), María Inés Moraes Vzquez (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Julio Djenderedjian (Argentina).

This symposium will gather papers on the evolution of prices, wages, distribution of wealth and standards of living of Latin American cities, regions, countries and/or macro-regions since 1700 until 1850. The aims of this session are: (a) bringing together researchers working with prices, wages and assessment of the standard of living for pre-statistics periods; (b) confront experiences in working with data and available research tools to the reconstruction of prices, wages and the standard of living in the region. It is expected to receive contributions on recent case studies for any of the Latin American territories from the 1700-1850 periods. Papers that approximate the standard of living from material culture and consumption, as well as contributions on methodological issues and the exploration of innovative sources are also welcome.

22. Natural Resources and the Economy in Latin America (19th century)

CHAIRS: Juan Pedro Cceres Muñoz (Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile), Claudio Llanos Reyes (Universidad de Playa Ancha, Chile, Chile).

The central aim of this session is to promote the discussion on Latin American economies during the nineteenth century, considering the importance of natural resources that were available for the economic development of the new states. Hence, the old dilemma and discussion about the dependency of our economic development on its monoproductive and export-centered conditions will be revisited. Thus, the committee intends to discuss the development of productive sectors related to cattle farming, mining and agriculture, among others. Finally, the committee aims to contribute to the historical understanding of the relationship between economic and social phenomena and the natural settings within which these have developed. Therefore, the papers that will be accepted will provide insight into the issues concerning the economic use and exploitation of forests, energy, raw materials, environment, water resources, nonrenewable and renewable resources, infrastructure, energy resources, human resources, mineral resources, fish and agricultural resources and their impact in the State’s historical configuration.

23. Monetary Policy in Andean and Caribbean Countries

CHAIRS: Guy Pierre (Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico), Rebeca Gómez Betancourt (Université Paris II Panthéon-Sorbonne, France), Bernardo Vega (Fundación Cultural Dominicana, República Dominicana).

As historians of economics and economists, we formulate several questions about the degree of success of the Money Doctors’ recommendations on the creation of the central banks in the twenties, as well as on the degree of effectiveness of the monetary policies adopted by the Andean and some of Caribbean countries with respect to their economic growth between the Great Depression of the 1930s and the long Keynesian cycle in the seventies. The session focuses on a triple theoretical problem: first, the monetary regimes adopted by these countries during these years; second, to the fiscal policies followed by these countries to pay their debt; and, third, to the exchange rate policies that the monetary authorities implemented to sustain the economic growth. The theoretical interest of this session is to build a frame of reference to analyze some policies that the same and other Latin American countries developed between the 1982 debt crisis and the adoption of the “Consensus of Washington” at the end of the eighties. Very few opportunities have been offered to the historians of economics and economists to debate the origin of these problems.

24. Port Firms and Exchange Circuits in the Atlantic World: Latin America, the Caribbean and the Iberian Peninsula, 17th-19th centuries

CHAIRS: Mario Alberto Trujillo Bolio (Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico), Miguel Surez Bosa (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain).
No abstract available.

25. Labor, Population and Trade in the Contemporary World (1789-1914)

CHAIRS: Rosângela Ferreira Leite (Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil), Paulo Cesar Gonçalves (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil), Vera Lucía Amaral Ferlini (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil).

This symposium aims to establish a meeting place for researchers that discuss the links among labor, populations and trade during the "long 19th Century" (1789-1914). At least three central themes will be target: 1) The specific bounds between commercial transformations and the shaping of the production; 2) The population's arrangement and 3) The making of the Labor World. Through a diachronic perspective, the common ground required to work with them, it concentrates at the political and social struggles, the government forms and the incorporation of vast Latin American regions into the world-economy.

26. Global Financial Crises in Historical Perspective: 1929 and 2008-2009

CHAIRS: Graciela Mrquez Colín (El Colegio de México, Mexico), Carlos Marichal (El Colegio de México, Mexico)

The 1929 financial crisis and the Great Depression of 1930s imprinted a profound mark on the economic development of the entire World. Both economics and economic policy changed significantly and the growth patterns of many regions did so too. The subprime crisis that exploded at the end of 2008 and its aftermath have opened a growing interest among economist and economic historians on our understanding of the 1929 and 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The goal of the symposium is to find the parallelisms and differences between both crises, their regional impact and, finally to reflect on the lessons learn from economic history.

27. Financial Crises and Bailouts in the Age of Globalization, 1980-2009

CHAIRS: Enrique Crdenas (Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesias, Mexico), Gustavo Del Ángel (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, Mexico), Sergio Negrete Crdenas (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente, Mexico).

The symposium deals with the history of financial crisis and the corresponding financial rescues from the 1980’s to the present. The period considers the age of globalization characterized by large capital flows across countries, and includes the 2009 crisis and the subsequent financial rescue in the US and in other countries.

28. Latin American International Relationships, Connections, Affairs and Negotiations, 19th and 20th century. Problems and topics

CHAIRS: María Cecilia Zuleta (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico), Gisela Cramer (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia).

This symposium aims at discussing topics and problems concerning the historic analysis of Latin American international economic relationships in XIX and XX centuries from new perspectives of analysis and examination. It convokes a wide and diverse group of researches relative to international economic relationships as well as bilateral-multilateral relationships studies in Latin America, both focused in the economic aspects of the interaction, is the idea of the symposium. The historic analysis of different aspects on Latin American economic dynamics and international interactions is the main purpose of this symposium wants to establish. Direct discussion towards reflection on compared and contrasted Latin American history field is another, wider but not less important, purpose of the symposium. The symposium’s debate matters are: trade and financial relations as well as negotiations on commerce, transport and communication in Latin American modern and contemporary history; the interaction of actors and agencies on international fields; economical integration processes; experiences on borders economies conformation in several continental areas (transnational history of borders); the dynamics of Inter American and international multilateral organizations and the participation of different countries, actors, and agencies at them; the bilateral and multilateral Latin American historical experience of international treaties and agreements on transport, communications, energy, or commerce.